Wednesday, May 25, 2022

The Peanut Factory: squatting in South London in the 1970s

I really enjoyed reading 'The Peanut Factory' by Deborah Price (Guts Publishing, 2022), her memoir of life in South London squats in the 1970s and early 80s - and specifically the scene in the Crystal Palace/Norwood area. Must admit that despite myself being a Brixton squatter later in the 80s I had no idea how much squatting there was around that nearby part of London. But this was in a period when there were plentiful empty private and council homes for people to live in if they could cope with disrepair and no hot water.

She particularly mentions a triangle of streets lower down Gypsy Hill where many of the houses were squatted and a warehouse known as the Peanut Factory became an informal community centre: 'There was big rockabilly scene down at the squats, with King Kurt and other fledgling bands, and a lot of quiffs and hair-gel. Parties happened every weekend. It was amazing how many people could cram into a small Victorian terrace'.



People living round Upper Norwood will appreciate some of the hyperlocal detail, including memories of working in local pubs, the zoo and Crystal Palace Adventure Playground. But there is a lot here for anyone interested in alternative scenes in London and their cultural history. 

Price really evokes this time through her relationships with a shifting cast of friends, lovers and flat mates. There is freedom and affordable living, but also addiction and sexual abuse.

Price moves through the sub cultures of the time, leaving aside her former hippy clothes and records to enthusiastically embrace punk and then moving on to clubbing at places like the Fridge in Brixton, the WAG and Le Beat Route: 'Getting dressed up and partying was a living protest against cuts and poverty. It was fingers up to the Government'. Sometimes cultural/music historians treat these scenes as a succession of completely distinct moments, when the fact is it was sometimes the same people involved just changing their clothes.

The Fridge is probably best remembered now for its long term location at the bottom of Brixton Hill, now home of Electric Brixton. But for a couple of years in the early 1980s it was above the Iceland store on Brixton Road. Price remembers it at that time as being 'glittering white, decorated with lots of fake ice stalagmites and stalactites... lit up with silver and blue lights to get a cold icy backdrop' (I went there once to see Rubella Ballet). She also recalls regularly getting her cut at one of the famous gay squats on Railton Road. 

The author is giving a talk at the Bookseller Crown bookshop in Crystal Palace on 26th May 2022, details here

Monday, May 23, 2022

Music Monday: Naima Bock - 'Toll'

Naima Bock was the  co-founder and bassist with Goat Girl, but has left the band to pursue a solo career. Her debut album is due out on Sub Pop on 1 July 2022. Naima spent her childhood between Britain and Brazil and indeed has just completed a tour of Europe supporting Brazilian singer Rodrigo Amarante. But her London years have been very much SE London, in fact she lived in my SE14 street for years and went to Edmund Waller school.



Toll is a track from the new album and features a kind of psych-folk sound, little bit Vashti Bunyan but with a languid melody that also puts me in mind of slowed down Stereolab. Great folk horror video too.

Monday, May 16, 2022

Music Monday: Belle & Sebastian video on Ladywell Fields

The music video for the latest Belle and Sebastian single “Talk To Me Talk To Me” features scenes shot in and around Ladywell Fields.



The video was written and directed by 15-year-old south London siblings Freya and Rosalie Salkeld.  According to singer Stuart Murdoch, “we put out an open call to filmmakers who would be interested in making something for the existing budget, requesting an image encapsulating their idea and a 100-word pitch. The directors’ mother got in touch saying her daughters are fans of the group and keen filmmakers, and they sent in a treatment that we loved. They co-wrote and co-directed it, and got a bunch of their friends involved, and made a fresh and funny take on the song.”

The Salkeld siblings added, “Our idea had come from photos we’d taken of our friends for art projects. Casting mates we’d recently seen in a school drama production was really fun — filming them was even better!”

I believe the school that features in some scenes is Kingsdale in West Dulwich.

Sunday, May 15, 2022

Airship over Nunhead

The Goodyear Blimp airship has been in the skies of London and Kent this weekend, here seen over Lausanne Road in Nunhead on Saturday 14th May 2022


 

Wednesday, April 27, 2022

Reweirding: Lost Landscape and Found Lore

A packed Amersham Arms in New Cross last month for the first of a series of 'Reweirding' events there. The theme for March was for 'Reweirding London: Authors on the Secret City', with interesting talks from Caitlin Davies on female crime,  Lara Maiklem on mudlarking on the Thames shore and Tom Chivers on  'London Clay: Journeys in the Deep City' (pictured below left holding his underground London map with host Scott Wood).


The next event,  'Reweirding: Lost Landscape and Found Lore', takes place on Thursday 28 April 2022, 7 pm:

'Discover what remains of south London’s Great North Wood and revel in the revival of the Deptford Jack in the Green mayday celebration. Complementary verdant short films from Video Strolls.

C.J. Schüler, author of The Wood That Built London, charts the fortunes of the North Wood from its earliest times: its ecology, ownership, management, and the gradual encroachment of the metropolis.

The Fowlers Troop Jack in the Green was revived by members of Blackheath Morris Men and friends in the early 1980s. It is a revival of a Jack in the Green from the late 19th/early 20th century which was taken out around Deptford, South East London on May Day by the original Fowlers Troop.

Sarah Crofts tells the tale of the Deptford Jack-in-the-Green and presents David Aylward’s film of the 2006 procession. Artist Sarah Sparkes demonstrates, with some help, with shadow puppets'.

(further details and tickets here).


David Aylward with the Deptford Jack in the Green

Tuesday, April 26, 2022

Flowers for Teon Campbell-Pitter in Fordham Park

Flowers in Fordham Park, New Cross, where 16 year old Teon Campbell-Pitter was killed on 13 April 2022



Another child killed, more children charged with his killing. Difficult to say anything meaningful, but Peckham-based Power the Fight are doing some good community based work around youth violence.

 

Friday, April 15, 2022

South London Swans

Redcross Way SE1


The sadly closed White Swan pub in Deptford High Street

Hamilton Street, Deptford

 

Thursday, April 14, 2022

Anti-Refugee Bill opposed at Brockley Cross

Billboard poster at Brockley Cross denounces the Government's plain evil plans to deport refugees to offshore detention camps. Press reports today suggest refugees arriving in the UK could be flown to Rwanda.


 

Friday, April 08, 2022

Nunhead Museum 2022

It's been a while since the 'Nunhead & District Municipal Museum and Art Gallery' opened its doors to the public, but for one weekend only this idiosyncratic collection can be viewed at 80 Gellatly Road SE14 - part of the Telegraph Hill Festival Open Studios.




 

Sunday, April 03, 2022

Gormless Rishi and other famous faces on the New Cross Road


Dark clouds gather over the Sainsburys petrol station on New Cross Road - an omen for the Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak as inflation rises and people struggle with the cost of living? For it was here that he recently staged that ill dated photo opportunity to demonstrate that he was a man of the people filling up his car, only to be widely mocked after it was broadcast (by Sky News on 23 March) as it was revealed that he had borrowed a Sainsburys worker's car for the shoot and appeared not to know how to pay in the petrol station.


This particular stretch of the New Cross Road has had its fair share of famous visitors, and the experience has not always been a good one. American actor Shia LaBeouf hit the tabloids not once but twice in 2012 and 2014 after getting into fights just across the road in The Rose pub (known at the time as the Hobgoblin). He was dating local actor Mia Goth, press reports this week say they have just had a baby together in Los Angeles, though he is also facing allegations of violence and abuse by ex-partner FKA Twigs.

On a lighter note there was that time in 2016 when Elton John parked his Bentley outside The Rose and popped in to use the loo.


I guess as a main road many notables good, bad and ugly have paused to sample its delights, some of them even able to work out how to pay for things. I remember that the long gone Sirius fish and chip shop near the Walpole, further along New Cross Road, used to boast that Paul McCartney had once stopped there for chips and a pickled onion. Am I imagining that they had a signed photo of him in the shop?

Sunday, March 06, 2022

Ukraine crisis on the walls of London

Like most people watching terrible events continuing to unfold in Ukraine, I feel a sense of powerlessness. I have no armchair hot takes or new geopolitical analyses, other than to express solidarity with people in Ukraine subject to brutal invasion and with those opposing the war in Russia itself (as well as sympathy for those Russian conscripts sent to fight in Putin's war, who we can only hope will turn against their masters as they have at other key points in Russian history)

There are a few echoes of the war on the walls of London, including in the graffiti tunnel in Leake Street under Waterloo station.

'Ukraine burns as we watch. F*ck Putin Murderer'




'F*ck Putin! Make love not war'.

'love not war' - simplistic but true. Since almost everyone prefers the former to the latter why can't it be so?

[There was also lots of memorial graffiti there this week for drum & bass MC Skibadee, who was born in Waterloo]

A couple more from elsewhere...

Noticed a few window signs going up including this 'Glory to Ukraine' near Brockley cross.

A friend sent this one from Greenwich High Road. A contemporary twist on the old anarchist slogan 'No war but intersectional class war'

Waterloo newspaper?

The graffiti in the Waterloo tunnels serve as a kind of wall newspaper, constantly changing in response to current cultural and social events. I took some photos there last year (June 2021) and at the time there was more about Covid, as well as the police off the back of the Black Lives Matters and 'Kill the Bill' demonstrations:



'class matters when it affects you'




 

Monday, February 21, 2022

Russian Revolutionaries in New Cross/Deptford, 1907

In 1907 the 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held at the Brotherhood Church in Hackney. The 338 delegates represented the various factions of the party, chiefly its Bolshevik and Menshevik wings, and included Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg and, Maxim Gorki. The Radical History of Hackney blog has written about this and why not, that was where it all happened.

But did some of the delegates stay in SE London? A later account given by one George Adam, a Reuters journalist at the time, suggests so. The article 'When Lenin came to Islington' (Graphic, 4 February 1928) states that:

'shortly before the Harwich boat-train came in with its cargo of Russians,six unmistakable Yard men, wearing the Yard bowler hat and the Yard boots [...] marched on to the platform and took up strategic positions behind the pillars supporting Liverpool Street Station. The delegates were marched off into groups with Scotland Yard in step with them to the East London Underground

In the train I became friendly with one of the C.I.D. (Special Branch), and he confessed that they did not know where the Russians were going, adding that they were all Nihilists, bomb-throwers, and villains of the deepest dye. They went no farther than New Cross, where these desperadoes- they certainly looked the part- prosaically marched up to a big London County Council lodging - house, paid a tanner apiece for their bedrooms, and went to sleep comfortably, while the Special Branch found what rest it could on the hard wooden benches of the hall'.

Adam managed to get inside the Church during the Congress - this is his description - 'There were men from all the Russias, thin-faced Jewish fanatics, university intellectuals, bovine peasants... The vestry had been turned into a refreshment bar. From two or three barrels, resting on a house-decorator's trestles and planks, beer was being dispensed... There almost under my eyes, the organization of the Soviet, more or less as it afterwards came into being, was outlined'



The tale is certainly feasible. At this time trains could indeed be taken on the East London line from Liverpool Street to New Cross, and if so the accommodation mentioned is likely to have been the LCC's Carrington House in Brookmill Road, Deptford, opened in 1903 as a hostel for working men.

Which of the delegates stayed there is not known - others stayed elsewhere for sure, including Stalin who is said to have stayed at another hostel in Fieldgate Street in Whitechapel.  

Carrington House - the building still stands

Saturday, February 19, 2022

Light Perpetual - remembering the New Cross V2 disaster

An eye catching, if slightly storm frayed billboard advert in New Cross Road announces the paperback publication of Francis Spufford's novel 'Light Perpetual'. Spufford has been teaching creative writing at Goldsmiths since 2008 and the novel is directly inspired by events in New Cross Road. As he explains in the book, 'for the last twelve years, I've been walking to work at Goldsmiths College past a plaque commemorating the 1944 V2 attack on the New Cross Road branch of Woolworths. Of the 168 people who died, fifteen were aged eleven or under. The novel is partly written in memory of those South London children, and their lost chance to experience the rest of the twentieth century'.


The premise of the novel is to imagine what might have been given some very slight alteration in circumstances - supposing a technical fault has caused the missile to fail during its journey, as many did, or it landed relatively harmlessly in a park rather than a crowded shop on a Saturday?

'That's time for you. It breaks things up. It scatters them. It cannot be run backwards, to summon the dust to rise, any more than you can stir milk back out of tea. Once sundered, forever sundered. Once
scattered, forever scattered. It's irreversible. But what has gone is not just the children's present existence [....]  It's all the futures they won't get, too. All the would-be's, might-be's, could-be's of the decades to come. How can that loss be measured, how can that loss be known, except by laying this
absence, now and onwards, against some other version of the reel of time, where might-be and could-be and would-be still may still be'.

And so Spufford imagines how the lives of some of the children who died might have played out in the decades to come, what they missed out on and what the world missed out by their absence. I really enjoyed the novel but admit to being puzzled why he set a story that is so clearly tied to a real New Cross event in the fictional south east London borough of Bexford. But as he recently explained, 'I wanted to find a way of remembering the event that was faithful but not literal, so had to invent a London borough and drop a V2 of my own on to it, not to trample on anybody’s real grief'.

Memorials

There are actually two memorial plaques at the site (where the Iceland store now stands)- the first put up by Deptford History Group in 1994...


...and the second sponsored by Lewisham Council unveiled in 2009, as reported here.



As I roved out on Deptford Broadway

The events are also referenced in a song from 2012 included on the compilation 'Deptford Day: Songs About SE8'. 'As I roved out on Deptford Broadway'  by Neil Gordon-Orr imagines somebody looking back on their youth in the pubs and cinemas of New Cross and Deptford and missing his friends lost in the Second World War, including in the V2 attack.




As I roved out on Deptford Broadway

As I roved out one summer Sunday
To take the air on Deptford Broadway
Fell in with Jo and Sam and Susie
Says I who'll share my wages with me?

We had a quick dram in the Dover
In the Royal Albert we sipped some porter
Sam left with Jo and Susie after
She caught the tram and I fell over

I saw Susie the next Friday
In the Odeon kissed through a movie
Next week we danced in the New Cross Palais
Next year in St Pauls we were married

Now I sit here in the Granby
And all those years have gone behind me
So have a drink and sit beside me
My old friends' stools are all long empty

Sam never came back from the army
Jo crossed the seas when she got married
And Susie died right here in New Cross
When the rocket blew up Woolworths

Now I go walking every Sunday
I dodge the cars on Deptford Broadway
I think of Sam and Jo and Susie
And all the other ghosts beside me


The sunlight perpetual reflects off the gold letters on the billboard
'Come, other future. Come, mercy not manifest in time; come
knowledge not obtainable in time. Come, other chances. Come,
unsounded deep. Come, undivided light. Come dust' (Frances Spufford)







 

Tuesday, February 15, 2022

Reweirding London: Authors on the Secret City at the Amersham Arms

'Reweirding' put on interesting talks and events at Conway Hall and elsewhere. Next month they are coming to the Amersham Arms in New Cross for 'Reweirding London: Authors on the Secret City', an event that will feature talks from the authors of three recent books on underground London - physically and metaphorically. 

Speakers include:

Caitlin Davies –  'Queens of the Underworld: A Journey into the Lives of Female Crooks'

Lara Maiklem – 'Mudlarking: Lost and Found on the River Thames'

Tom Chivers – 'London Clay: Journeys in the Deep City'

All this plus short films on London from Video Strolls.

24 March 2022 7pm – 10 pm

Venue: The Amersham Arms, 388 New Cross Road, London SE14 6TY

£7 / £5 concessions, advance tickets advised available here.  

Books available from The Word Bookshop, 314 New Cross Road SE14 6AF

Wednesday, February 09, 2022

Deptford Slavery Map Launch

A campaign group has been set up with the goal of establishing a Museum of Slavery and Freedom (M ō S a F) on the site of the old Royal Naval Dockyard on the bank of the River Thames at Deptford:  'The museum will focus on the role of Deptford, London and the Royal Navy in the triangular slave trade and demonstrate how the UK grew rich as a result of their activities. It will celebrate the way freedom from the trade was won and explore how the legacy of slavery lives on today'.

On Saturday 12th February at 3 pm they will be launching a new Map of Deptford's links to slavery and freedom. The event will take place at the studio of Empathy & Risk, 1 Borthwick Street, London SE8 3GH (by Twinkle Park).  Among those present will be Dr Helen Paul (Lecturer in Economics and Economic History, University of Southampton), who researches the slave trade, and artist Keith Piper -  among other things a founder of the  BLK arts group.

Keith Piper, Go West Young Man (1987)

MōSaF say: 'There are few memorials to the slave trade in the UK’s capital, an astounding gap in the country’s cultural landscape. Our railway system, cotton and coal industries, the City of London and the Country House movement all owe a substantial economic debt to the trade in humans. The MōSaF Map is unique because it goes local. Deptford provides a historical snapshot of how, and exactly where on our streets, our citizens and businesses engaged in the trade in humans. Deptford is also home to key landmarks in the fight for abolition'

See previous Transpontine posts on this subject:

Haberdashers, Hatcham and Slavery

An anti-slavery speech in Deptford 1830

Deptford's Runaway Slaves

Saturday, February 05, 2022

Revolt at the Royal Hospital School, Greenwich 1840

The buildings that today house the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich Park previously housed a school to train boys for the Navy, as well as at times girls for domestic service. The Royal Hospital School had its origins in the early 18th century and from the beginning of the 19th century the Queens House in Greenwich was converted for boarding school use, with other buildings being added later. It continued there until 1933, with the buildings being transferred to the new museum trust in the following year.

In a remarkable episode in 1840 pupils at the school absconded en masse and fought with police trying to recapture them, seemingly in protest against harsh conditions there.

'Revolt in the Royal Naval School, Greenwich Asylum'

  (Kentish Gazette, 22 September 1840)

'For several days past a spirit of insubordination has manifested itself amongst the boys of this Institution, and although there has not been any decided outbreak on the part of the boys in the Upper School they evidently sympathise with those of the Lower School, in which there are four hundred sons of British tars clothed, fed, and educated.

On Friday last four of these youngsters scaled the wall into the Park and had proceeded on
their way to Portsmouth as far as Kingston-upon-Thames, where they were apprehended by the police and brought back in a chaise to Greenwich on Saturday morning, and arrived in the Asylum yard at the time the boys were returning from breakfast. The policeman had no sooner delivered them over to the mate when they made their escape into the midst of their comrades and were soon lost sight of.

The boys, generally, commenced pelting the officer with a volley of stones, and the four refractory urchins again made there escape over the walls. Several others, in the course of the day, followed their example, and deserted the Asylum. On two of them being taken in by a police constable, he was severely pelted, and considerably hurt in consequence.

Walker, another experienced and powerful constable, apprehended two of the runaways, and on delivering them at the school, where he conceived that he should be received with all due deference, the boys began to pelt him with stones, at the  same time using the most gross and improper language. He said there were some stonemasons at work in the grounds, who were obliged to beat a retreat under the incessant volleys directed against them [...] for some time he did not know what to do - he being surrounded as it were by hive of bees. At length be determined to take off his waist-strap and run in amongst them, but they were so nimble he could not secure them, as they retreated in all directions and again renewed the attack. Walker said he had witnessed many desperate rows in St. Giles', where mischief was intended, but he never saw such cool determination exhibited before.

On Sunday morning, immediately after breakfast, upwards of forty scaled the walls and made their way for Shooters Hill where a number of them provided themselves with bread, milk, and apples, expressing a determination to proceed to Chatham, and go on board ship rather than remain in the Asylum and be ill used as they said they had recently been.

Within the three days upwards of seventy have deserted the Asylum and at sunset on Sunday
evening there were upwards of forty absentees. Those who have been recaptured are placed in charge of the main-guard of the Royal Hospital, until an investigation of the circumstances takes place. The mutineers generally complain that they have not a sufficient quantity of food, that which they do get being of a bad quality; that they are severely punished for the slightest offences; and that the drills and gymnastic exercises have recently been more strict than usual: and, further, that instead of allowed to go out once a fortnight, they have only permission out  twice in three months, and their friends have only leave to visit them for about two hours on the first Wednesday in the month [...]

There are 400 boys in the Upper School, sons of Naval officers, who so far sympathised with the revolters as to assist in pelting of some of the police-constables while they were in the act of apprehending some of the delinquents in the Park. A strict investigation into the cause of the general disaffection will immediately take place, as it is of the first importance that youths who are destined for the public service should be kept in proper discipline and subordination, or there is no knowing what consequences may be the result when employed in her Majesty's service. [...]

In addition to the number of boys who deserted the school, 17 others scaled the walls on Monday
morning. On making inquiry we found that, in addition to the alleged ill-usage and indifferent food, the boys complain of the intention there exists of making them soldiers, as one of the reasons which has induced them to desert and although it is well known that the sailors had a great antipathy to a marine during the last war, that feeling has greatly diminished; nevertheless the sons of the old tars have e great aversion to be made soldiers of.

Twenty of those which have been recaptured have been severely flogged, and 27 are now in charge of the main-guard of the Royal Hospital, and there are 43 absentees. Although the apprehension of being made soldiers of has materially increased in consequence of the severe drills they have heen subjected to, a degree of harshness towards them in that particular, and also in their gymnnastic exercises, together with the confinement they now endure as compared with former regulations, has materially contributed to bring about the serious disaffection which at present exists... Ten of the mutineers were drummed out of school on Friday the band playing the Rogues March during the ceremony'.


Tuesday, January 25, 2022

New Cross Fire mural at Cummin Up

A new mural was opened this week on New Cross Road to mark the 40th Anniversary of the 1981 New Cross Fire. The piece has been commissioned by Richard Simpson, his wife Sharon and family,  joint owners of Cummin Up Caribbean Takeaway(next to New Cross Gate station) as part of their 30 year celebrations. 



As the plaque also notes  'This year is also the: 40th anniversary of the death of reggae singer, and emancipationist, Bob Marley. 50th anniversary of Lewisham's first black police officer, David Michael MBE, pictured above. 100th anniversary of the destruction of The Black Wall Street' also known as 'The Tulsa Race Massacre' in the Greenwood district of Tulsa. Oklahoma. Yes! We are Here. Artwork produced and installed by: London Boards & Colorset now celebrating their 20 year anniversary'


A memorial to the 14 who died as a result of the fire was installed in nearby Fordham Park in 2012. A plaque at the scene of the fire was unveiled in 2011.


Wednesday, December 29, 2021

The temporary architecture of Covid-19

Mobile Testing Unit, Canada Water

 Is anybody documenting the temporary architecture of COVID-19?

All those pop-up testing, vaccine and booster centres. White marquees in lockdown-emptied carparks. Public buildings grand and shabby transformed into collection points for saliva and mucus. Neighbourhood chemists with queues round the block administering life-saving vaccines.

Testing Centre by Devonport House, Greenwich

In a nation obsessed with memories of a war that hardly any living person now remembers, analogies are often drawn between the Blitz and the pandemic. Absurd in many ways – viruses are not waging war on us, just reproducing in the conditions of the world we have created. But maybe there are parallels with the vanished bomb shelters that sprang up in World War Two- places of huge significance that largely disappeared when no longer needed, evidenced only by fading signs painted on nearby walls. Nobody is cowering in a test centre fearing sudden death from above but there is a quieter diffuse fear. For some people taking that test was the first step onto a journey that ended in hospital and death. For many that injection was what saved their life.

Booster vaccine queue at New Cross Pharmacy/Waldron Centre
Waldron Health Centre, Amersham Vale SE14. Mural reads (in English and Spanish) 'I feel it is my duty to protect myself and my community''

And what of that instant workforce, thousands of people in the front line of the pandemic, a global precariat performing vital tasks on casual contracts employed not by the NHS but by companies like Sodexo. Who is documenting the stories of the ‘Test Operatives’?

We can only hope that one day we will be able to look back and wonder that this was ever how we lived our lives. But for now it sometimes feels that it’s been going on for so long that we risk ceasing to notice how extraordinary this all is.

Walk Through Testing Site, Vanguard Street, Deptford
Lewisham Civic Suite, Catford (and below)


Tuesday, December 07, 2021

All Swell at Camberwell - Women in trousers at the town hall shock (1941)

'All Swell' - 'an unofficial bulletin published monthly by the Camberwell Branch of Nalgo for the special benefit of members serving with the Forces... Edited by David Leggatt, Food Office, Wilson's Grammar School, Peckham Road'. The motto of the old Camberwell Council  - now incorporated into Southwark Council - was ‘All’s well’, so the Union was playing on this. NALGO, the National Association of Local Government Officers, became part of Unison.

Anyway the big news in November 1941 was that the ‘the town hall saw for the first time women members of staff wearing trousers’.  This was something the author approved of: 'trousers are more hard wearing than stockings and more economical at the present time; by their use, women save both coupons and money. It follows then that fewer stockings mean more tanks for Russia'


 [original document is in Southwark Archives]